Ethiopia has been recently investing on the full utilization of its natural resources transforming their potentials and capabilities into mega projects. Significant hydroelectric, irrigation and tourism ventures are being pursued by way of transforming the overall economic prospects of the country. Some of these ventures are being realized in Southern and South-Western parts of Ethiopia, especially along the Omo Vally and the expanse of the territories adjacent to South Sudan and Kenya. These investments usher a sense of optimism as well as concern for all parties involved. The prospect for collective wellbeing and development is on the horizon. Yet, because of the desire to unilaterally benefit from the process, tensions and conflicts among different segments of society are already emerging. This workshop therefore aimed at identifying ways forward in the current political atmosphere so that economic opportunities are contributing to peace and sustainable development and are not further fueling existing and unfolding tensions.